[" This tutorial is intended to get you up to speed and doing something useful as quickly as possible. So let's get right to it. Toccata is a programming language that you can use to write all kinds of software. It falls in the category of general programming languages. You'll be typing Toccata expressions in the box below. These expressions wil be interpreted and the expression and the results will added to this box. You can type any expression at anytime. And this tutorial will teach you what to type. One other note. Programming is full of jargon and we keep inventing more as we go. This lets us programmers communicate with each other more easily but sounds like gibberish to non-programmers. I'll try to define each term I use as we go along, so you may want to write down each term in a notebook. You'll be surprised how fast you'll pick it up. Programming is not easy, but anyone can do it with hard work. That means you. We're eventually going to write a Tic-Tac-Toe game for the web. But we've got a ways to go. If you're an experienced programmer, you can probably skip most of the explanations and just type in the examples. First of all are integers. Type the following number expression. After each expression, hit the 'return' or 'enter' key. 73724" " The '=>' shows you what the result was. You can type any number you want. The next simple expression is what's commonly called a string. These are signified by double-quotes \". Type this line, double-quotes and all. \"a string of characters\" Each letter is a character. Digits and punctuation are characters as well. And so are 'whitespace' characters like spaces and newlines. I'll try keep these expressions reasonable, but I strongly urge you to type them in and not copy/paste them. Something happens in your brain as you type them that will make your progress much faster. So type in the following expression. (str \"Howdy\" \" \" \"folks\") You should see '=> Howdy folks'. The expression is enclosed in parentheses meaning that this is a call to a function. 'str' is a function that takes any number of values (in this case three strings), converts them all to strings and then combines those into one long string. Functions are how we do things in programming. It's all about writing functions that call other functions to get stuff done. " " So let's write a function. Type this expression (defn hi-there [name] (str \"Howdy \" name)) Here's what each part means. The 'defn' means \"define a function\". 'hi-there' is the name of function and how we're going to call it later. '[name]' means that this function requires one value. 'name' is what's called a parameter. When this function is called, the parameter 'name' will be whatever value was passed as an argument to the function. Then there's one function call to 'str' passing the string \"Howdy \" and the parameter 'name'. Now you can call this function (also called 'running the function') like this. (hi-there \"Frankie\") Now you can call 'hi-there' as many times as you like with different strings as arguments. Also try passing an integer to it and see what happens." " By the way, all of this happening in your browser, nothing is being sent to the server to execute. Functions are bundled together in groups. These collections go by different names; libraries, modules, etc. There are nuances about how each type of collection is used, thus the different names. But they're all just collections of functions. Every language comes with a collection of built-in functions. These are the most basic functions programmers use to build software. This collection is called the 'standard library' or the 'core library' or just the 'core'. You can see Toccata's core library by going to the following URL. You'll have to copy/paste it since I can't put links in this box https://github.com/Toccata-Lang/toccata/blob/master/core.toc Don't worry about understanding all that right now. We'll get there. Let's do something with integers. Type the following expression (+ 3 881 12) And now you can add numbers. Try some other common arithmetic functions like -, *. There's no '/' function. That's because there's two parts. The first is 'div' and second is 'mod'experiment with each of those a couple of times. If you try to divide by 0, you won't get any result because the system crashes. :)" " And now we jump into the deep end. You're reading and interacting with a web page in your browser. You can see see the raw source in most browsers by typing Ctrl-u. What you see is the file your browser downloaded from the Toccata web site. It's written in a language called HTML. Your browser interprets that file to create an internal representation which it then uses to show it to you. Here's the point, you can use Toccata functions to look at, and change, this internal data structure and cause the browser to display *anything*. This web page has a place for us to experiment with HTML. It's over there to the right. So let's find it so we can do stuff to it." " First we find it. Type this expression (dom/get-element-by-id \"sandbox\") Not every function can be in the core library. 'get-element-by-id' is in a library with a bunch of other functions. When calling these functions, we prefix their name with \"dom/\". We'll see other libraries very soon. In the browser, a web page is called a document and its internal representation is called the DOM which stands for Document Object Model because the web page document is a collection of page objects. So the name of the Toccata library to work with these document objects is 'dom'. The document objects are also called elements (and as we'll see in a second, nodes). So this function searches through all the document elements to find the one with an ID of 'sandbox'. But elements are not required to have an ID. It's optional. And its possible to mispell the ID. Try this next line and compare. Notice we drop the 'o' from 'sandbox'. (dom/get-element-by-id \"sandbx\") What's this 'maybe' / 'nothing' stuff? That requires a tangent." " In addition to integers and strings, Toccata has other kinds of values. Each of these kinds of values is called a 'type'. Integers are a type and strings are a type. There's another type of value that can actually have another value inside it. This is the Maybe type. Lets explore this a little. We can create a Maybe value with the 'maybe' functiona. Hopefully by now yuo can recognize Toccata expressions to type in. (maybe 7) You can get the value inside using 'extract' (extract (maybe 7)) There's a special Maybe value that is empty called 'nothing' nothing But if you try to 'extract' from 'nothing' ... (extract nothing) There's lots more about Maybe and other types, but for now, we'll proceed." " Let's make sure everything is working. (dom/get-element-by-id \"sandbox\") If you didn't get a 'nothing' value back, let's extract the sandbox element and save it for use later (def sandbox (extract (dom/get-element-by-id \"sandbox\"))) You read this expression from the inside out. First, we get the DOM element as before. Then, the result of that function call is passed to 'extract' to pull the DOMNode out of the Maybe value. The 'def' is how we assign a name to a value so we can use that value later. The 'defn' expression we saw early on (no need to enter these next two expressions) (defn hi-there [name] ... ) Is actually shorthand for (def hi-there (fn [name] ... ) (The 'fn' expression will be explained later, but in short, it's how we can create a function with no name.) And now, make sure 'sandbox' is what we expect. sandbox And it should print '=>
' as the result." " Now that we have our sandbox node, we can put stuff in it. The HTML language I mentioned earlier is how the structure of web pages are specified. It stands for HyperText Markup Language. But HTML doesn't say much if anything about how the elements should be displayed. That falls to another language call CSS which stands for Cascading Style Sheets. Each element/node has various style attributes to control if and how an element is displayed." " Now type the following (dom/inner-html sandbox) Every node can contain other nodes. It is the parent and the nodes it contains are its children. The browser can convert these child nodes to a string of HTML code and that's what 'inner-html' does. In this case, we see the string \"sandbox\" is the inner HTML. And finally, let's set the inner HTML to something. (dom/inner-html sandbox \"Howdy, folks\") We use the same function get both get the inner HTML and set the inner HTML of a node depending on how many parameters we call it with." " So just banging some text into the sandbox causes it to show up. But let's do something a little more interesting. (dom/inner-html sandbox \"
\") And the text is now green. That 'span' business is how you specifify an HTML element and the 'style' attribute tells the browser how to display it. I don't have the time or space here to fully describe HTML and CSS. But there are loads of good tutorials on the net you can find. Realize that you can set the inner HTML on the sandbox to any HTML you want (pretty much) and it'll get displayed. So it's a great way to experiment. And for anything more than a short snippet, it's a horrible way to do it. It's so easy to mistype something. And browsers always do their best to interpret it and display something. So the only feedback you get is that something may not look right. Or worse, looks right for the wrong reasons. Toccata has ways to make this easier though. First, let's create a little function to reduce our typing. (defn try-html [s] (dom/inner-html sandbox (doc/html-str s))) and use it (try-html \"Eat at Freddy T's\")" " There are a number of functions to help create HTML and CSS in Toccata. They're grouped into 3 modules. One for HTML, one for CSS and one for documents in general. The source code is at these links, if you're curious. https://github.com/Toccata-Lang/html-css/blob/master/html.toc https://github.com/Toccata-Lang/html-css/blob/master/css.toc https://github.com/Toccata-Lang/html-css/blob/master/document.toc Since the HTML and CSS functions get typed a lot, we want their prefixes to be as short as possible. To create a 'span'element like before, we can do (def spn (h/span \"some text\")) The prefix for the HTML functions is 'h'. Likewise the prefix for the CSS functions is 'c'. And the prefix for the document functions is 'doc'. So the following will convert that span element into an HTML string. (doc/html-str spn) And then we see what that looks like in the sandbox (try-html spn) Using the CSS functions to add a little color. (try-html (c/color spn c/blue)) " " For reference from the last step, we had (try-html (c/color spn c/blue)) You can see that to understand this expression, we have to find the innermost expression, read it and then work our way out. This is fine for the computer, but less so for us humans. So there's a different way to write this. (-> spn (c/color c/purple) (try-html)) Or split it across multiple lines (-> spn (c/color c/red) try-html) This let's us see how the results of one expression becomes the input to the next. This is called 'threading' since the data is threaded through the first position of each successive expression. The parentheses are optional if an expression just has a function to call with no additional arguments. " " Now try this (-> spn (c/color c/red) (c/font-size (c/px 22)) try-html) There are functions in the HTML and CSS namespaces to fully specify any web page you care to construct. Knowing how to use them requires knowing what you want to construct. For instance, the 'font-size' function sets the size of the characters of the text in the span. In this case it's specified in pixels using the 'px' function. To recap; we use the functions in the HTML and CSS modules to create a Toccata data structure that describes our web page. Then we use the 'try-html' function (which uses 'inner-html') to tell the browser to interpret our HTML and create an internal data structure and display. Then we can use the functions from the DOM module to modify those nodes if we want to change them further. With the basics in hand, let's finally do that Tic-Tac-Toe game we mentioned..." " Let's start by thinking about TicTacToe. You probably know that it's a game where there are 9 squares in a 3x3 grid. Two players take turns marking X's and O's in empty squares until one manages to get 3 squares in a line that contain their mark or all the squares are filled. " " So we're going to need a way to draw the grid of squares. Since each square is the same, we'll write a function to create a single square and call it 9 times. Type this expression in. (this one is ok to copy and paste) (defn square-view [square-num] (-> (h/button) (h/attr \"id\" (str \"square\" square-num)) (h/attr \"type\" \"button\") (c/background-color (c/hex-color \"fff\")) (c/border-width (c/px 1)) (c/border-style c/solid) (c/border-color (c/hex-color \"999\")) (c/float c/left) (c/font-size (c/px 24)) (c/font-weight c/bold) (c/line-height (c/px 34)) (c/height (c/px 34)) (c/margin-right (c/px -1)) (c/margin-top (c/px -1)) (c/padding (c/px 0)) (c/text-align c/center) (c/width (c/px 34)))) This creates an HTML button using 'h/button' and then adds a bunch of CSS styling to make it look nice. There's also one attribute at the top that's important, the 'id' attribute. This attribute let's us distinguish between the 9 squares on the board. Each square gets a unique ID based on 'square-num'. Just for grins, let's poke at this a little. Enter the following expressions one at a time: square-view (square-view 9) (doc/html-str (square-view 18)) Now do: (try-html (square-view 10)) A square should appear in the upper left corner of the sandbox. " " The next thing we need is to make one row of the board out of three squares: (defn row-view [start] (h/div (square-view start) (square-view (+ start 1)) (square-view (+ start 2)))) This creates an HTML Div element that contains three squares whose ID's begin at 'start'. By default, a div will display it's contents horizontally across the page, which is what we want. So no additional CSS attributes are needed. Make sure it works. (try-html (row-view 10)) Did you get what you expected? " " And now use 'row-view' to create the full board. (def board-view (-> (h/div (row-view 0) (row-view 3) (row-view 6)) (c/display c/flex) (c/flex-direction c/column))) Notice that this isn't a function. It's a value that gets created immediately. It's another div. Except this time, we want the three rows to be stacked vertically, so add some CSS to do that. And let's see our board. (try-html board-view) " " We need one final piece. It would be a pain to have to study the board to see who's turn it is, so let's add an element to tell us that. (def game-view (h/div (h/div (-> \"Next Player: X\" (h/attr \"id\" \"status\") (c/font-size (c/px 24)) (c/font-weight c/bold))) board-view)) And gaze upon our creation (try-html game-view) " " You might have noticed that the names of all those definitions ended in \"-view\". In Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's), the part of the code that creates what the user sees is called the 'view'. We've just defined the various pieces of our view. Now we move on to the next piece of our TicTacToe app. One of the more critical parts of writing an app is deciding how to store the data we're working with. Every app has a domain that it applies to, in our case the game TicTacToe. The data reprents this domain. It's a model of the domain. So we call it the 'model'. The model will change over time as our app handles events (which we'll talk about later). As each event is handled, it causes the model to change through a succession of values. The value of the model at one particular time is called the 'state' of the app. So the model is a place where successive state values are stored. Each time the model changes state, the view may need to be updated. In the domain of the TicTacToe game, we have two pieces of state we need to keep track of. Obviously, the board is one. The second is the player whose turn it is. " " Since each player can be identified by the mark they put on the board, the player whose turn it is will be either the string \"X\" or the string \"O\". Now we just need a place to put them. Every 'def' expression we've seen so far has only defined values; a function or some other kind of value. What we need is a 'place' value that will hold a string (or any kind of value, for that matter). Toccata has just such a type of value, an Agent. So let's create one. (def curr-player (agent \"X\")) You can get the value currently in the agent using 'extract'. (extract curr-player) If you remember, we used 'extract' to also get the value from inside a Maybe. So this same function works on both Agents and Maybes. But it's not actually the same function. It's two different ones that are called by the same name and one or the other is chosen to run based on the type of the argument. " " The obvious question to be answered is how to change the value inside an Agent. We can't do it directly, but we can 'send' the Agent a function that it will use to change the value it holds. It does this by calling the function we send it with the value it currently holds and keeping the function's result. So let's send it a function that ignores it's argument and always returns an \"O\". (defn always-O [_] \"O\") First, let's try it out, just to make sure. (always-O 71) Now let's send it to the Agent (send curr-player always-O) (extract curr-player) " " What we really need is a function that returns an \"X\" when given an \"O\" and vice versa. Let's write that and then I'll explain all the pieces. (defn next-player [curr-player] (either (and (= \"X\" curr-player) (maybe \"O\")) \"X\")) That may look a little complicated, but we'll take it one step at a time. As usual, we'll start from the inside and work out. The '(maybe \"O\")' expression we've seen before. It creates a Maybe value with an \"O\" inside. Now enter this expression: (= \"X\" \"O\") You see it return 'nothing' because those two strings aren't the same. But now do (= \"X\" \"X\") and you get a '(maybe X)' value. So if two (or more) values are the same, '=' returns a Maybe value with one of those value (the first one, actually) inside. But if they're different, it returns 'nothing'. " " An 'and' expression has any number of expressions inside it. If any of the inner expressions evaluate to 'nothing', the 'and' expression also evaluates to 'nothing'. But if all the inner expressions evaluate to Maybe's with values inside them, the outer 'and' expression evaluates to the value of the last one. Here are a couple of examples (and (= \"X\" \"X\") (maybe \"O\")) (and (= \"X\" \"O\") (maybe \"O\")) (and (= \"X\" \"\") (maybe \"O\")) There's also an 'or' expression you should know about. Try the above expressions replacing the 'and' with 'or'. " " As a reminder, this is the function we're looking at. No need to type it in again. (defn next-player [curr-player] (either (and (= \"X\" curr-player) (maybe \"O\")) \"X\")) and the 'either' expression is up next, best explained with two examples. (either (maybe \"X\") \"O\") (either nothing \"O\") When the first expression in an 'either' evaluates to a Maybe with something in it, that inner value is extracted and becomes the result. But if the first value is 'nothing' (an empty Maybe value), the second expression does. So what we have in this function is an expression that returns a \"O\" if 'curr-player' is \"X\" and an \"X\" otherwise. For you programmers, I know this is just an 'if' expression. Not having one was an experiment and adding one is top of my priority list. " " Let's try out this function. Enter these expressions. (next-player \"O\") (next-player \"X\") (next-player 77) So now, we can toggle the player back and forth. Type in this expression a couple of times and call 'extract' on the agent as well. (send curr-player next-player) " " We have one piece of state in our model and now we need to add the second. The board. The current player was a single string. For the board, we need to keep track of 9 strings. One for each square on the board. We've seen Maybe and Agent values can hold another value, but what we need is a value that can hold more than one. In Toccata, there are two. We're going to use one called Vector. Type in the following (def empty-board [\"\" \"\" \"\" \"\" \"\" \"\" \"\" \"\" \"\"]) The square brackets are how we indicate that we want all the values between them to be part of the vector. In this case, 9 empty strings. Let's see what this looks like empty-board You'll see that it displays 9 commas between square brackets on a single line. The line breaks don't matter when writing a vector and empty strings don't get displayed at all. We left out the commas when writing the vector because they're just noise, but when the vector is displayed, they help us know where the values are. " " Among others, the Vector has one important feature that we need. You can put things in and take things out using a number as an index. Type this (store empty-board 2 \"X\") You'll see that returned a Maybe value with a vector inside. If the index number had been too large (or negative), the 'store' would have failed. Try this (store empty-board 15 \"nope\") Also, store does not change 'empty-board' it creates a new vector and replaces the value at the index with the new value. Look at 'empty-board' again empty-board " " Since we can't change 'empty-board', what we need is a place to store the board part of our model. So ... (def board (agent empty-board)) And now, we can tell the agent to update it's value (send board (fn [board-value] (either (store board-value 1 \"X\") board-value))) Here, we didn't bother to define a named function, we created one on the fly and left it unnamed, or anonymous. And since the 'store' function returns a Maybe and might fail, we used an 'either' to get the new board value if it succeeds or just use the old one if it fails. You'll notice I've spend a lot of time talking about what to do if something fails. At most, half of your programming effort will be writing the \"happy path\" code. The rest will be trying to see what might go wrong and dealing with that. Do an 'extract' on the board agent and see what's in there. You'll notice that for an index of 1, the value actually ended up in the second position. All programmers start counting at 0, so the first position is index 0. " " We put a Vector in an Agent and then put a String in the Vector in the Agent. How about we get something out? First, let's create a Vector with some values in it and get one out. Type these in one at a time. (def v [1 2 3]) (get v 0) (get v 2) (get v 3) As you can see, the 'get' function can fail just like the 'store' function so it also returns a Maybe value. The way this is typically used is with an 'either' (either (get v 1) 0) (either (get v 17) 0) " " There's really only one other major piece we need (and a couple of minor ones) to finish our TicTacToe game. We've built our View which generates some HTML. We specified our Model and created two Agents to hold it. We now need some functions to update the model and use the new state of the model to update the view. This set of functions is called the Controller. These three pieces (Model, View, Controller) are how most GUI software is architected. This is the MVC architecture. But once we write our controller functions, how do they get called? That's where events come in. As the user does things to the view in the browser, the browser generates events which the controller handles and updates the model and then updates the view. And the user interacts with the new view creating new events and the cycle completes. " " How do we tell the browser what functions for which events? That's the final major piece. The only event we'll use is the \"click\" on the squares of the board. As you might expect, this event gets triggered when the players click on a square. So let's get a single square in the sandbox to work with. (try-html (square-view 0)) Now, let's find that square, so we can work with it (def sqr0 (either (dom/get-element-by-id \"square0\") \"not found\")) Did we get id? sqr0 You should see \"
\" and not \"not found\". " " Since 'sqr0' is empty, let's create a function that puts some text in it. (defn insert-X  (dom/inner-html sqr0 \"X\")) Don't execute it just yet. Instead, we want to tell the browser to call it when 'sqr0' is clicked. (wasm/handle-event sqr0 \"click\" insert-X) And now, click on the square. Hopefully, an 'X' appeared. Clicking the square again has no visible effect, since there's already an 'X' in there. What we need is to see what's in the square and use 'next-player' to get the new value to insert. And instead of using a named function, we'll use an anonymouse one. But first, we want a new square that doesn't have any event handlers attached. (try-html (square-view 1)) (def sqr1 (either (dom/get-element-by-id \"square1\") \"not found\")) " " Now let's add that toggling event handler (wasm/handle-event sqr1 \"click\" (fn  (let [old (dom/inner-html sqr1) new (next-player old)] (dom/inner-html sqr1 new)))) I've introduced the 'let' expression. Hopefully, it's pretty clear how it works. The results of expressions are bound to 'old' and 'new'. And 'new' is then used in the body of the 'let' to update the square. Also notice that to get the old inner HTML, I used 'dom/inner-html' but only gave it one argument, the DOM element to get the HTML from. The 'let' expression could have been written as a nested expression like this (dom/inner-html sqr1 (next-player (dom/inner-html sqr1))) and if you type that in, you'll see the contents of the square change. The square will change everytime you type (or past) that expression in. And it will also change each time you click it." " With the last piece in hand, we can move ahead implementing the controller of our app. We already have the first function of it, 'next-player'. We also need to check when someone wins a game. These two functions do that. Since there's a lot of repitition in these, feel free to copy and paste. In fact, you're probably tired of typing. Feel free to copy and paste the remaining expressions, but read them carefully. (defn is-winner [board a b c] (let [squares [(either (get board a) \"\") (either (get board b) \"\") (either (get board c) \"\")]] (or (= squares [\"X\" \"X\" \"X\"]) (= squares [\"O\" \"O\" \"O\"])))) (defn check-winner [board] (and (or (is-winner board 0 1 2) (is-winner board 3 4 5) (is-winner board 6 7 8) (is-winner board 0 3 6) (is-winner board 1 4 7) (is-winner board 2 5 8) (is-winner board 0 4 8) (is-winner board 2 4 6)) (maybe board))) Hopefully, you can read these and understand what's going on, so I'll skip the commentary. " " Now we come to the heart of the controller. The next two functions update each of our two agents in our model and update the view as needed. First, we need a function that does the following; given the current board, a square number to update and the mark of the player to put in that square - Store the mark in the proper position on the board - See if there is a winner - If so, update the status view with the \"Winner\" status - If not, update the status view with \"Next player:\" status - Update the board view with the new mark placed in its square - Return an updated board state to the agent The function is on the next page. It's longer than we've seen so far, but there's no new elements in it. This is typical of programming. Mostly we just combine a relatively small number pieces into larger and larger constructs until we get the software we need. Theoretically. " " (defn update-board [board curr-player square-num] (let [new-board? (store board square-num curr-player) status? (dom/get-element-by-id \"status\") square? (dom/get-element-by-id (str \"square\" square-num))] (either (and new-board? status? (let [new-board (extract new-board?) status-node (extract status?) square-node (extract square?) new-status (either (and (check-winner new-board) (maybe (str \"Winner: \" curr-player))) (str \"Next Player: \" (next-player curr-player)))] (dom/inner-html square-node curr-player) (dom/inner-html status-node new-status) (maybe new-board))) board))) Go ahead and type that in. There are ways to write this so that it's shorter. But that would need me to explain other concepts and I figure this is long enough as is. We're almost done. " " Now we need a function that will send this function to the board agent. But it also needs to: - Check the current board state for a winner and do nothing if so - Also see if the desired square already has a mark and do nothing if so - Otherwise, send 'update-board' to the board agent - Update the current player agent with tne other player Here it is: (defn set-square [curr-player square-num] (let [board-state (extract board) square-state (either (get board-state square-num) \"\")] (either (and (or (check-winner board-state) (= \"X\" square-state) (= \"O\" square-state)) (maybe curr-player)) (do (send board update-board curr-player square-num) (next-player curr-player))))) The 'do' is the only new element. It evaluates all it's inner expressions and the value of the last one is the value the over all expression returns. " " That's almost all the code for our game. So now we need to initialize the view and hookup the \"click\" event handlers for all the squares. The first is easy: (try-html game-view) The second needs some explaining. For each square, we have to create an event handler and attach it to the square. So let's write a function for that: (defn attach-handler [square-num] (let [square? (dom/get-element-by-id (str \"square\" square-num))] (and square? (maybe (wasm/handle-event (extract square?) \"click\" (fn  (send curr-player set-square square-num)))))) " " The last task is to attach \"click\" handlers to each square. We'll do it with brute force. Feel free to copy and paste these expressions. (send curr-player (fn [_] \"X\")) (send board (fn [_] empty-board)) (attach-handler 0) (attach-handler 1) (attach-handler 2) (attach-handler 3) (attach-handler 4) (attach-handler 5) (attach-handler 6) (attach-handler 7) (attach-handler 8) And now you can play a game of TicTacToe. This tutorial was just the beginning. There's loads more features of Toccata to make building web apps, phone apps and native executables easily and quickly. Keep an eye on the Tutorials page for more and follow @toccata_lang on Twitter. "]